Sir Charles Dalrymple (1839-1916), formerly Fergusson, was the youngest son of Sir Charles Dalrymple Fergusson, 5th Baronet, of Kilkerran. He succeeded to the estates of Hailes on the death of his father in 1849, when he assumed the name of Dalrymple. He was created a baronet in 1887, and a Privy Councillor in 1905. Sir Charles married in 1874, Alice Mary, daughter of Sir Edward Hunter Blair, 4th Baronet, of Blairquhan. She died in 1884.
Sir Charles at first seemed destined for a legal career, entering the Inner Temple after graduating from Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1862. However, he entered Parliament as Conservative MP for Buteshire in 1868 and represented the county until 1885 when he unsuccessfully contested Midlothian against Gladstone. In April 1886 he was elected for Ipswich and sat until defeated in 1906. He served as a junior Lord of the Treasury in 1885, and on the Royal Commissions on Cathedral Establishments, Reformatories, Vaccination, and Universities (Scotland). His extensive correspondence, diaries, and working papers contain much material concerning public affairs and politics in late 19th and early 20th century Britain.